Saturday, July 15, 2006

默默無名的偉大小提琴老師, D. C. Dounis

說真的, Dounis在台灣實在不怎麼有名. 他的著作中文版的連一本都看不到. 國外也好不到哪裡去. 一直到了去年, 才出現他的作品的合集. 挑出了11本他的著作, 由 Carl Fischer 出版.

Dounis 是怎麼樣的一個人呢? 大概只有天才才能形容吧.
1886 年出生, 是希臘人. 在維也納拜當時的一個有名的小提琴教師, Frantisek Ondrisec. 在同時也是維也納大學的醫學院學生. 在第一次世界大戰後, 成了一個小提琴家, 後來在希臘的音樂院當上了教授. 後來因為第二次世界大戰, 他到處搬家, 最後搬到美國去了.

在 當時, 他是一個非常奇特的教育者. 他曾經就有在報紙上廣告說, 七天就能學會小提琴所有的技巧 (這好像我們現在纺間一些電腦書, "7 天學會CGI" 一類的東西). 聽說他還教中提琴大提琴跟聲樂. 每天上課6個小時. 這聽起來很扯, 但是如果連小提琴家海菲茲都去請教過他的話, 這好像就不是那麼的不可能了吧?

他基本上只是把小提琴的技巧分門別類, 找出其中最基本的元素以及各類技巧之間的關係, 並配合對於人體運動的一些規律, 整理出一套系統. 像是左手的基本動作, 右手的握弓以及運弓, 左手的手型. 他的另一個貢獻是提倡練琴要用大腦. 而他的很多理論對於現在的小提琴教學有滿多的影響.

不過如果他那麼利害, 為什麼他的作品沒什麼人出版呢? 我想這跟他的作品的形式有關. 第一, 他的作品很無聊, 基本上就是一些很難做的動作, 拉一些音. 第二, 他並沒有培養出很厲害的音樂家. 這大概是因為他專注的問題並不是在音樂的處理, 而是很單純的如何達成某種技巧的問題.

大家最終的目的是, 拉好聽的音樂. 不過他的貢獻實在是被大家小看了!

推薦這一本 "Demetrius Constantine Dounis: The Dounis Collection" (就是旁邊那一張大圖).

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